Sensitivity of helioseismic measurements of normal-mode coupling to flows and sound-speed perturbations

Shravan M. Hanasoge, Martin Woodard, H. M. Antia, Laurent Gizon, Katepalli R. Sreenivasan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


In this article, we derive and compute the sensitivity of measurements of coupling between normal modes of oscillation in the Sun to underlying flows. The theory is based on first-born perturbation theory, and the analysis is carried out using the formalism described by Lavely & Ritzwoller (1992). Albeit tedious, we detail the derivation and compute the sensitivity of specific pairs of coupled normal modes to anomalies in the interior. Indeed, these kernels are critical for the accurate inference of convective flow amplitudes and large-scale circulations in the solar interior.We resolve some inconsistencies in the derivation of Lavely & Ritzwoller (1992) and reformulate the fluid-continuity condition. We also derive and compute soundspeed kernels, paving the way for inverting for thermal anomalies alongside flows.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1404-1420
Number of pages17
JournalMonthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
Issue number2
StatePublished - Sep 11 2017


  • Hydrodynamics
  • Sun: helioseismology
  • Sun: interior
  • Sun: oscillations
  • Waves

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Astronomy and Astrophysics
  • Space and Planetary Science


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