Mediators involved in the generation of pain in patients with cancer are poorly understood. Using a combined molecular, pharmacologic, behavioral, and genetic approach, we have identified a novel mechanism of cancer-dependent allodynia induced by protease-activated receptor 2 (PAR2). Here we show that human head and neck carcinoma cells have increased levels of proteolytic activity compared to normal human cell controls. Supernatant from human carcinoma cells, but not controls, caused marked and prolonged mechanical allodynia in mice, when administered into the hindpaw. This nociceptive effect was abolished by serine protease inhibition, diminished by mast cell depletion and absent in PAR2-deficient mice. In addition, non-contact co-culture of trigeminal ganglion neurons with human head and neck carcinoma cells increased the proportion of neurons that exhibited PAR2-immunoreactivity. Our results point to a direct role for serine proteases and their receptor in the pathogenesis of cancer pain. This previously unrecognized cancer pain pathway has important therapeutic implications wherein serine protease inhibitors and PAR2 antagonists may be useful for the treatment of cancer pain.
- Cancer pain
- Protease activated receptor 2
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Clinical Neurology
- Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine