Shear bond strengths between different zirconia cores and veneering ceramics and their susceptibility to thermocycling

Petra C. Guess, Andreja Kuliš, Siegbert Witkowski, Martin Wolkewitz, Yu Zhang, Jörg R. Strub

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Objectives: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the shear bond strength between various commercial zirconia core and veneering ceramics, and to investigate the effect of thermocycling. Methods: The Schmitz-Schulmeyer test method was used to evaluate the core-veneer shear bond strength (SBS) of three zirconia core ceramics (Cercon Base, Vita In-Ceram YZ Cubes, DC-Zirkon) and their manufacturer recommended veneering ceramics (Cercon Ceram S, Vita VM9, IPS e.max Ceram). A metal ceramic system (Degudent U94, Vita VM13) was used as a control group for the three all-ceramic test groups (n = 30 specimens/group). Half of each group (n = 15) was thermocycled (5-55 °C, 20,000 cycles). Subsequently, all specimens were subjected to shear force in a universal testing machine. Fractured specimens were evaluated microscopically to determine the failure mode. Results: The initial mean SBS values in MPa ± S.D. were 12.5 ± 3.2 for Vita In-Ceram YZ Cubes/Vita VM9, 11.5 ± 3.4 for DC-Zirkon/IPS e.max Ceram, and 9.4 ± 3.2 for Cercon Base/Cercon Ceram S. After thermocycling mean SBS values of 11.5 ± 1.7 MPa for DC-Zirkon/IPS e.max Ceram, 9.7 ± 4.2 MPa for Vita In-Ceram YZ Cubes/Vita VM9, and 9.6 ± 4.2 MPa for Cercon Base/Cercon Ceram S were observed. Neither the differences between the SBS values of the all-ceramic test groups nor the influence of thermocycling on all groups were statistically significant. Irrespective of thermocycling the metal ceramic control group (27.6 ± 12.1 MPa, 26.4 ± 13.4 MPa) exhibited significantly higher mean SBS than all three all-ceramic groups tested. The all-ceramic groups showed combined failure modes as cohesive in the veneering ceramic and adhesive at the interface, whereas the metal ceramic group showed predominately cohesive fractures. Significance: The results indicated that the SBS between zirconia core and veneering ceramics was not affected by thermocycling. None of the zirconia core and veneering ceramics could attain the high bond strength values of the metal ceramic combination.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1556-1567
Number of pages12
JournalDental Materials
Issue number11
StatePublished - Nov 2008


  • Failure mode
  • Shear bond strength
  • Thermocycling
  • Veneering ceramics
  • Zirconia ceramics

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Materials Science
  • General Dentistry
  • Mechanics of Materials


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