Simultaneous 3D acquisition of 1H MRF and 23Na MRI

Zidan Yu, Shota Hodono, Olga Dergachyova, Tom Hilbert, Bili Wang, Bei Zhang, Ryan Brown, Daniel K. Sodickson, Guillaume Madelin, Martijn A. Cloos

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Purpose: To develop a 3D MR technique to simultaneously acquire proton multiparametric maps (T1, T2, and proton density) and sodium density weighted images over the whole brain. Methods: We implemented a 3D stack-of-stars MR pulse sequence which consists of interleaved proton (1H) and sodium (23Na) excitations, tailored slice encoding gradients that can encode the same slice for both nuclei, and simultaneous readout with different radial trajectories (1H, full-radial; 23Na, center-out radial). The receive chain of our 7T scanner was modified to enable simultaneous acquisition of 1H and 23Na signal. A heuristically optimized flip angle train was implemented for proton MR fingerprinting (MRF). The SNR and the accuracy of proton T1 and T2 were evaluated in phantoms. Finally, in vivo application of the method was demonstrated in five healthy subjects. Results: The SNR for the simultaneous measurement was almost identical to that for the single-nucleus measurements (<2% change). The proton T1 and T2 maps remained similar to the results from a reference 2D MRF technique (normalized RMS error in T1 ≈ 4.2% and T2 ≈ 11.3%). Measurements in healthy subjects corroborated these results and demonstrated the feasibility of our method for in vivo application. The in vivo T1 values measured using our method were lower than the results measured by other conventional techniques. Conclusions: With the 3D simultaneous implementation, we were able to acquire sodium and proton density weighted images in addition to proton T1, T2, and (Formula presented.) from 1H MRF that covers the whole brain volume within 21 min.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2299-2312
Number of pages14
JournalMagnetic resonance in medicine
Issue number5
StatePublished - May 2022


  • MRF
  • sequence design
  • simultaneous multinuclear imaging
  • sodium MRI
  • Protons
  • Brain/diagnostic imaging
  • Magnetic Resonance Imaging
  • Sodium
  • Humans
  • Image Processing, Computer-Assisted/methods
  • Phantoms, Imaging

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging


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