The direct synthesis and characterization of site-specific adducts derived from the binding of (+)-1R,2S-dihydroxy-3S, 4R-epoxide-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-5-methylchrysene and the (-)-1S,2R,3R,4S-enantiomer [(+)- and (-)-5-MeCDE, respectively], to the N2-guanine residues in the oligonucleotide d(CCATCGCTACC) are described. The spectroscopic characteristics of the 5-MeCDE-modified oligonucleotides are discussed, and it is shown that their CD characteristics can be used to distinguish between the trans-addition products of the binding of the (+)- and (-)-enantiomers of 5-MeCDE (C4 position). The 11-mer duplexes with the normal complementary strands are destabilized by the site-specific, covalently bound 5-MeCDE residues: the melting points, T(m), are 5-10° lower than in the case of the unmodified duplex. Stereoselective exonuclease enzyme digestion patterns of the single-stranded (+)- and (-)-trans-5-MeCDE-modified oligonucleotides were used to probe the orientations of the covalently bound 5-MeCDE residues relative to the modified guanine and the 5'-3' strand polarity; the aromatic residues are positioned either on the 5'-side [(+)5-MeCDE], or the 3'-side [(-)-5-MeCDE adduct] of the modified guanine residues. The electrophoretic mobilities of the (+)-5-MeCDE-modified 11-mer duplexes in native polyacrylamide gels are slower than those of unmodified and modified duplexes containing the stereoisomeric (-)5-MeCDE-N2-dG lesions. This indicates that the lesions derived from the tumorigenic (+)-5-MeCDE induce greater degrees of bending or local flexibility than the non-tumorigenic (-)-5- MeCDE enantiomer. These differences in the orientational and structural characteristics are similar to those observed with analogous DNA adducts derived from the tumorigenic (+)-7R,8S-dihydroxy-9S,10R-epoxy,7,8,9,10-tetrahydrobenzo[a]pyrene and the non-tumorigenic 7S,8R,9R,10S-enantiomer, respectively. The adducts derived from BPDE and 5-MeCDE enantiomers thus display similar characteristics that depend primarily on the PAH diol epoxide enantiomer stereochemistry. This direct synthesis approach can be used to generate milligram quantities of site-specific 5-MeCDE-modified oligonucleotides that are suitable for NMR studies.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cancer Research