Situational Awareness: Techniques, Challenges, and Prospects

Arslan Munir, Alexander Aved, Erik Blasch

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Situational awareness (SA) is defined as the perception of entities in the environment, comprehension of their meaning, and projection of their status in near future. From an Air Force perspective, SA refers to the capability to comprehend and project the current and future disposition of red and blue aircraft and surface threats within an airspace. In this article, we propose a model for SA and dynamic decision-making that incorporates artificial intelligence and dynamic data-driven application systems to adapt measurements and resources in accordance with changing situations. We discuss measurement of SA and the challenges associated with quantification of SA. We then elaborate a plethora of techniques and technologies that help improve SA ranging from different modes of intelligence gathering to artificial intelligence to automated vision systems. We then present different application domains of SA including battlefield, gray zone warfare, military- and air-base, homeland security and defense, and critical infrastructure. Finally, we conclude the article with insights into the future of SA.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)55-77
Number of pages23
JournalAI (Switzerland)
Issue number1
StatePublished - Mar 2022


  • artificial intelligence
  • dynamic data-driven systems
  • fog computing
  • gray zone warfare
  • situational awareness
  • synthetic vision systems

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Artificial Intelligence


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