Six-year clinical performance of etch-and-rinse and self-etch adhesives

Lee W. Boushell, Harald O. Heymann, Andre V. Ritter, John R. Sturdevant, Edward J. Swift, Aldridge D. Wilder, Yunro Chung, Cynthia A. Lambert, Ricardo Walter

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Objective To evaluate the 6-year clinical performance of Xeno IV, Xeno III, and XP Bond adhesives in the restoration of non-carious cervical lesions (NCCLs). Methods This was a randomized controlled clinical trial where 39 participants met the inclusion/exclusion criteria and were enrolled. Lesions restored were notch-shaped NCCLs. Prior to adhesive procedures, NCCLs were roughened. No enamel bevel was placed and no mechanical retention was created. Adhesive systems were applied following manufacturer's instructions and the NCCLs were restored with composite resin (TPH3). Restorations were finished immediately after placement and scored with regard to retention, marginal discoloration, marginal adaptation, sensitivity, and secondary caries using modified USPHS criteria. Descriptive statistics were performed. Logistic regression models were performed for each outcome separately with compound symmetry correlation structure where teeth were clustered by participants. All analyses were conducted using SAS 9.2. Results The 6-year recall rate was 77.5% of the restorations (76.9% of the participants). No statistical differences were found between adhesives for retention, marginal discoloration, and marginal adaptation. Restorations failed by loss of retention (16.7%, 27.6%, and 11.8% of Xeno IV, Xeno III, and XP Bond restorations, respectively) and marginal discoloration (7.4% of Xeno IV restorations). For every unit increase in restoration volume it was 1.31 (95% C.I. 1.05, 1.63, P = 0.01) times more likely that the restoration retention would be maintained. Significance The tested adhesive systems presented similar clinical performance after six years of service, with annual failure rates of 2.8%, 4.6%, and 2.0% for Xeno IV, Xeno III, and XP Bond, respectively.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1065-1072
Number of pages8
JournalDental Materials
Issue number9
StatePublished - Sep 1 2016


  • Bonding
  • Clinical trial
  • Non-carious cervical lesion

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Materials Science
  • General Dentistry
  • Mechanics of Materials


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