Objective: To determine whether selected genes and plasma markers involved in energy homeostasis are associated with sleep disruption or duration in adults with HIV/AIDS. Methods: A sample of 289 adults with HIV/AIDS wore a wrist actigraph for 72 h to estimate total sleep time (TST) and wake after sleep onset (WASO). Twenty-three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) spanning 5 energy homeostasis genes (adiponectin [ADIPOQ], ghrelin [GHRL], leptin [LEP], peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha [PPARA], and -gamma [PPARG]) were genotyped using a custom array. Plasma markers of energy homeostasis (adiponectin, ghrelin, leptin) were measured by commercial multiplex assay. Results: After adjusting for demographic and clinical characteristics (race/ethnicity, gender, CD4 cell count, waist circumference, medications), both WASO and TST were associated with SNPs in ADIPOQ (rs182052), LEP (rs10244329, rs3828942), PPARA (rs135551, rs4253655), and PPARG (rs709151). Additional SNPs in ADIPOQ were associated with WASO (rs1501299, rs3821799, rs6773957) and TST (rs2241766). TST was also associated with SNPs in GHRL (rs26802), LEP (rs11760956), PPARA (rs135547, rs8138102, rs4253776), and PPARG (rs12490265, rs796313). Many covariate-adjusted associations involved a significant interaction with markers of HIV (viral load, years since diagnosis). Among plasma markers, higher adiponectin was associated with less WASO, higher ghrelin and glucose levels with shorter TST, and higher leptin with longer TST. Conclusions: Replication of SNPs in all five genes and three plasma markers of energy homeostasis were associated with objective sleep measures. HIV disease influenced many of the associations. Findings strengthen evidence for associations between energy homeostasis genetics and poor sleep, and provide direction for pharmacological intervention research.
- Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor
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