Smart prediction of liquefaction-induced lateral spreading

Muhammad Nouman Amjad Raja, Tarek Abdoun, Waleed El-Sekelly

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The prediction of liquefaction-induced lateral spreading/displacement (Dh) is a challenging task for civil/geotechnical engineers. In this study, a new approach is proposed to predict Dh using gene expression programming (GEP). Based on statistical reasoning, individual models were developed for two topographies: free-face and gently sloping ground. Along with a comparison with conventional approaches for predicting the Dh, four additional regression-based soft computing models, i.e. Gaussian process regression (GPR), relevance vector machine (RVM), sequential minimal optimization regression (SMOR), and M5-tree, were developed and compared with the GEP model. The results indicate that the GEP models predict Dh with less bias, as evidenced by the root mean square error (RMSE) and mean absolute error (MAE) for training (i.e. 1.092 and 0.815; and 0.643 and 0.526) and for testing (i.e. 0.89 and 0.705; and 0.773 and 0.573) in free-face and gently sloping ground topographies, respectively. The overall performance for the free-face topology was ranked as follows: GEP > RVM > M5-tree > GPR > SMOR, with a total score of 40, 32, 24, 15, and 10, respectively. For the gently sloping condition, the performance was ranked as follows: GEP > RVM > GPR > M5-tree > SMOR with a total score of 40, 32, 21, 19, and 8, respectively. Finally, the results of the sensitivity analysis showed that for both free-face and gently sloping ground, the liquefiable layer thickness (T15) was the major parameter with percentage deterioration (%D) value of 99.15 and 90.72, respectively.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2310-2325
Number of pages16
JournalJournal of Rock Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering
Issue number6
StatePublished - Jun 2024


  • Closed-form solution
  • Feature importance
  • Gene expression programming (GEP)
  • Intelligent modeling
  • Lateral spreading

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Geotechnical Engineering and Engineering Geology


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