Smoking and drinking in relation to oral potentially malignant disorders in Puerto Rico: A case-control study

Lin Li, Walter J. Psoter, Carmen J. Buxó, Augusto Elias, Lumarie Cuadrado, Douglas E. Morse

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Background: Oral cancer incidence is high on the Island of Puerto Rico (PR), particularly among males. As part of a larger study conducted in PR, we evaluated smoking and drinking as risk factors for oral potentially malignant disorders (OPMDs).Methods: Persons diagnosed with either an OPMD (n = 86) [oral epithelial dysplasia (OED), oral hyperkeratosis/epithelial hyperplasia without OED] or a benign oral tissue condition (n = 155) were identified through PR pathology laboratories. Subjects were interviewed using a standardized, structured questionnaire that obtained information, including detailed histories of smoking and drinking. Odds ratios (ORs) for smoking and drinking in relation to having an OPMD, relative to persons with a benign oral tissue condition, were obtained using logistic regression and adjusted for age, gender, education, fruit/vegetable intake and smoking or drinking.Results: For persons with an OPMD and relative to individuals with a benign oral tissue condition, the adjusted OR for current smoking was 4.32 (95% CI: 1.99-9.38), while for former smokers, the ORadj was 1.47 (95% CI: 0.67-3.21), each ORadj relative to never smokers. With regard to drinking, no adjusted ORs approached statistical significance, and few point estimates exceeded 1.0, whether consumption was defined in terms of ever, current, level (drinks/week), or beverage type.Conclusions: In this study, conducted in Puerto Rico, current smoking was a substantial risk factor for OPMDs while former smokers had a considerably reduced risk compared to current smokers. There was little evidence suggesting that alcohol consumption was positively associated with OPMD risk.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number324
JournalBMC Cancer
StatePublished - Jul 29 2011

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Genetics
  • Oncology
  • Cancer Research


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