Social and behavioral predictors of insufficient sleep among African Americans and Caucasians

Natasha J. Williams, Michael A. Grandner, Douglas M. Wallace, Yendelela Cuffee, Collins Airhihenbuwa, Kolawole Okuyemi, Gbenga Ogedegbe, Girardin Jean-Louis

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Background: Few studies have examined the social and behavioral predictors of insufficient sleep. Objective: To assess the social and behavioral predictors of insufficient sleep in the U.S. population. Methods: Data from the 2009 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) were analyzed. Telephone interviews were conducted in six representative states that completed the optional sleep module. A total of 31,059 respondents were included in the present analysis. BRFSS-provided weights were applied to analyses to adjust for the use of complex design. Results: The mean age for the sample was 56 ± 16 years, with 63% of the sample being female; 88% identified as non-Hispanic white and 12% identified as non-Hispanic black; 42% were not married and 8% did not have a high school degree. The prevalence of insufficient sleep (<7 hours) was 37%. Multivariate-adjusted logistic regression revealed associations of four important factors with insufficient sleep, which were: working more than 40 hours per week [OR = 1.65, p < 0.001, 95% CI = 1.65-1.66], black race/ethnicity [OR = 1.37, p < 0.001, 95% CI = 1.37-1.38], history of heart disease [OR = 1.26, p < 0.001, 95% CI = 1.25-1.28], care-giving to family/friends [OR = 1.50, p < 0.001, 95% CI = 1.49-1.51], and lack of social and emotional support [OR = 1.24, p < 0.001, 95% CI = 1. 23-1.25]. Conclusion: Social and behavioral predictors of health uniquely contribute to the report of insufficient sleep and should be considered when developing programs to increase awareness of the adverse effects of insufficient sleep.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)103-107
Number of pages5
JournalSleep Medicine
StatePublished - Feb 1 2016


  • Determinants
  • Insufficient sleep
  • Race/ethnicity
  • Sleep duration
  • Social/behavioral

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Medicine


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