Social Determinants of Health and COVID-19 Behaviors and Beliefs Toward Immunizations Among Latinxs

Norma Graciela Cuellar, Matthew J. Cuellar, Alex McDiarmid, Natalie Bautista, Michele Crespo-Fierro, Gerardo Infante, Debora La Torre, Lorraine Mautner, Maria Perez, Jacqueline Perry, Isolina Pistolessi, Amanda Quintana, Paulette Rangel, Sonia Valdez

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Introduction: Sixty million Latinxs make up 26.4% of all COVID-19 cases in the United States. It is uncertain whether behaviors and beliefs of immunizations among Latinxs is influenced by social determinants of health. The purpose of this study was to examine how social determinants of health predict COVID-19 behaviors and beliefs toward immunization among Latinxs. Methods: In this exploratory study, 11 chapters from the National Association of Hispanic Nurses collaborated to recruit participants. The CDC National 2009 H1N1 Flu Survey was adapted to measure behaviors and beliefs about immunizations of COVID-19. The Health Access Survey was used to measure social determinants of health. Instruments were available in both Spanish and English. Results: Participants (n=228) with higher education and health insurance tended to have less worry about taking the vaccine. Access to resources and practicing COVID-19 protective factors was positively associated. Alternative medicine and use of COVID-19 protective factors were negatively associated. Exposure to drugs and violence was associated with a decrease in likelihood to pursue a vaccine. Conclusions: Latinx need education about COVID-19 and vaccinations. Access to health care services must be available. Results highlight the importance of careful measurement when assessing social determinants of health among Latinx.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)221-229
Number of pages9
JournalHispanic Health Care International
Issue number4
StatePublished - Dec 2021


  • COVID-19
  • Health Access Survey
  • Latinx
  • exploratory factor analysis
  • social determinants of health
  • structural equation modeling

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Nursing


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