Social determinants of inflammatory markers linking depression and type 2 diabetes among women: A scoping review

Nicole Perez, Ning He, Fay Wright, Eileen Condon, Sheri Weiser, Brad Aouizerat

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Objective: Inflammation is implicated in the pathophysiology of depression and type 2 diabetes (T2D) and is linked to social determinants of health (SDoH) associated with socioeconomic disadvantage. The objective of this review is to identify and map the range of SDoHs associated with inflammation in depression, T2D, or their co-occurrence among women. Methods: PubMed, CINAHL, PsychINFO, and Web of Science were searched March–July 2023 to identify studies where 1) an SDoH was a predictor or independent variable, 2) depression or T2D was a clinical focus, 3) inflammatory markers were collected, and 4) analysis was specific to women. We used the National Institute on Minority Health and Health Disparities research framework to guide searching SDoHs, organize findings, and identify gaps. Results: Of the 1135 studies retrieved, 46 met criteria. Within the reviewed studies, the most used inflammatory measures were C-reactive protein, interleukin-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α, and the most studied SDoHs were early life stress and socioeconomic status. Individual and interpersonal-level variables comprised the bulk of SDoHs in the included studies, while few to no studies examined built environment (n = 6) or health system level (n = 0) factors. Disadvantageous SDoHs were associated with higher levels of inflammation across the included studies. Conclusion: The scope and intersection of depression and T2D represent a syndemic that contributes to and results from socioeconomic inequities and disproportionately affects women. Simultaneous inclusion of social and inflammatory measures, particularly understudied SDoHs, is needed to clarify potent targets aimed at advancing health and equity.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number111831
JournalJournal of Psychosomatic Research
StatePublished - Sep 2024


  • Early life stress
  • Gender
  • Health disparities
  • Inflammation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Clinical Psychology
  • Psychiatry and Mental health


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