Social protest and its discontents: A system justification perspective

Vivienne Badaan, John T. Jost, Danny Osborne, Chris G. Sibley, Joaquín Ungaretti, Edgardo Etchezahar, Erin P. Hennes

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Psychological factors that encourage-as well as discourage-participation in social protest are often overlooked in the social sciences. In this article, we draw together recent contributions to the understanding of the social and psychological bases of political action and inaction from the perspective of system justification theory. This perspective, which builds on theory and research on the “belief in a just world,” contends that-because of underlying epistemic, existential, and relational needs to reduce uncertainty, threat, and social discord-people are motivated (to varying degrees, as a function of personality and context) to defend, bolster, and justify the legitimacy of the social, political, and economic systems on which they depend. We review evidence that, alongside political conservatism and religiosity, system justification helps to explain resistance and acquiescence to the status quo in sociopolitical contexts as diverse as Lebanon, New Zealand, Argentina, and the United States.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1-22
Number of pages22
Issue number1
StatePublished - 2020


  • Acquiescence
  • Belief in a just world
  • Collective action
  • Conservatism
  • Political ideology
  • Religiosity
  • Resistance
  • System justification

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cultural Studies
  • Sociology and Political Science


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