Socioeconomic-related risk and sexually transmitted infection among African-American adolescent females

Jessica M. Sales, Erica L. Smearman, Andrea Swartzendruber, Jennifer L. Brown, Gene Brody, Ralph J. Diclemente

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Purpose Virtually no studies have examined the potential role that chronic stress, particularly the stress associated with socioeconomic status (SES) strain, may play on sexually transmitted infection (STI) risk. This study examined the association between SES-related risk at baseline to STI acquisition and reinfection over 36 months of follow-up.

Methods Six hundred twenty-seven African-American female adolescents, ages 14-20 years, recruited from sexual health clinics in Atlanta, GA, participated in a randomized controlled HIV prevention trial and returned for at least one follow-up assessment. Following baseline assessment, six waves of data collection occurred prospectively over 36 months. Chronic SES-related risk was assessed as a sum of yes-no exposure to seven risk indicators. Laboratory-confirmed tests for Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae were performed at each follow-up.

Results In multivariable regression analysis, SES-related risk significantly predicted STI acquisition over 36 months (adjusted odds ratio = 1.22) and STI reinfection (adjusted odds ratio = 1.16) above and beyond other known correlates of STI.

Conclusions Findings demonstrate that SES-related risk was predictive of both STI acquisition and reinfection among young African-American females. They are consistent with propositions that some health disparities observed in adulthood may be linked to earlier chronically stress-inducing life experiences, particularly experiences associated with low SES conditions. Although various explanations exist for the observed connection between SES-related risk and subsequent STI acquisition and/or reinfection across 36 months of follow-up, these findings highlight the need for further research to elucidate the exact pathway(s) by which SES-related risk influences later STI acquisition to refine STI prevention interventions for this population.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)698-704
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Adolescent Health
Issue number5
StatePublished - Nov 1 2014


  • Adolescents
  • African-American
  • Females
  • SES
  • STIs
  • Stress

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
  • Psychiatry and Mental health


Dive into the research topics of 'Socioeconomic-related risk and sexually transmitted infection among African-American adolescent females'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this