Socioeconomic Status, English Proficiency, and Late-Emerging Reading Difficulties

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


Educators have growing concerns about students who learn to read proficiently by third grade but fall behind in later grades. This study investigates the prevalence of "late-emerging" reading difficulties among English language learners (ELLs) and native English speakers from diverse socioeconomic backgrounds, using longitudinal data on a nationally representative sample of U.S. students. Results indicate that substantial proportions of both groups develop difficulties during the upper elementary and middle school grades. ELLs and students from low socioeconomic backgrounds are at significantly elevated risk for late-emerging difficulties; ELLs and non-ELLs from similar socioeconomic backgrounds are at similar risk.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)484-486
Number of pages3
JournalEducational Researcher
Issue number6
StatePublished - 2010


  • achievement gap
  • at-risk students
  • longitudinal studies
  • reading

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Education

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