Sodium dodecyl sulfate and C31G as microbicidal alternatives to nonoxynol 9: Comparative sensitivity of primary human vaginal keratinocytes

Fred C. Krebs, Shendra R. Miller, Bradley J. Catalone, Patricia A. Welsh, Daniel Malamud, Mary K. Howett, Brian Wigdahl

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

A broad-spectrum vaginal microbicide must be effective against a variety of sexually transmitted disease pathogens and be minimally toxic to the cell types found within the vaginal epithelium, including vaginal keratinocytes. We assessed the sensitivity of primary human vaginal keratinocytes to potential topical vaginal microbicides nonoxynol-9 (N-9), C31G, and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). Direct immunofluorescence and fluorescence-activated cell sorting analyses demonstrated that primary vaginal keratinocytes expressed epithelial cell-specific keratin proteins. Experiments that compared vaginal keratinocyte sensitivity to each agent during a continuous, 48-h exposure demonstrated that primary vaginal keratinocytes were almost five times more sensitive to N-9 than to either C31G or SDS. To evaluate the effect of multiple microbicide exposures on cell viability, primary vaginal keratinocytes were exposed to N-9, C31G, or SDS three times during a 78-h period. In these experiments, cells were considerably more sensitive to C31G than to N-9 or SDS at lower concentrations within the range tested. When agent concentrations were chosen to result in an endpoint of 25% viability after three daily exposures, each exposure decreased cell viability at the same constant rate. When time-dependent sensitivity during a continuous 48-h exposure was examined, exposure to C31G for 18 h resulted in losses in cell viability not caused by either N-9 or SDS until at least 24 to 48 h. Cumulatively, these results reveal important variations in time- and concentration-dependent sensitivity to N-9, C31G, or SDS within populations of primary human vaginal keratinocytes cultured in vitro. These investigations represent initial steps toward both in vitro modeling of the vaginal microenvironment and studies of factors that impact the in vivo efficacy of vaginal topical microbicides.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1954-1960
Number of pages7
JournalAntimicrobial agents and chemotherapy
Volume44
Issue number7
DOIs
StatePublished - Jul 2000

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pharmacology
  • Pharmacology (medical)
  • Infectious Diseases

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