Visualization of soil structure interaction during projectile penetration of clay is made possible by use of a surrogate composed of magnesium lithium phyllosilicate combined with high-speed photography and digital image correlation. A free-falling penetrator striking at 5.5 m/s simulated a projectile. Penetration resistance was constant within the resolution of the experiment; it was mainly due to the bearing resistance of the soil in contact with the nose, rather than skin friction. Bearing resistance in dynamic penetration for a hemispherical-nose rod was about 20% higher than quasi-static tests using a sphere. Bearing resistance was also about 20% higher for a hemispherical nose compared to a conical nose. Cavitation behind the nose is dependent on its shape with soils rebounding toward the projectile for conical noses but not hemispherical ones.
- Index matching
- Transparent soil
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Geotechnical Engineering and Engineering Geology
- Earth and Planetary Sciences (miscellaneous)