This paper reports on the combined NMR-molecular mechanics computational studies of the solution structure of the (-)-cis-anti-[BP]dG adduct positioned opposite dC in the sequence context d(C1-C2-A3-T4-C5-[BP]G6-C7- T8-A9-C10-C11)·d(G12-G13-T14-A15-G16-C17-G18-A19-T20-G21-G22) duplex [designated (-)-cis-anti-[BP]dG·dC 11-mer duplex]. This adduct is derived from cis addition at C10 of (-)-anti-7(S),8(R)-dihydroxy-9(R), 10(S)- epoxy-7,8,9,10-tetrahydrobenzo[a]pyrene [(-)-anti-BPDE] to the N2 position of dG6 in this duplex sequence. The exchangeable and nonexchangeable protons of the benzo[a]pyrenyl moiety and nucleic acid of the major conformation were assigned following analysis of two-dimensional NMR data sets in H2O and D2O solution. There was a general broadening of proton resonances for a three- nucleotide segment centered about the lesion site which resulted in a tentative assignment for the sugar protons of the C7 residue in the spectrum of the adduct duplex. The solution conformation of the major conformation of the (-)-cis-anti-[BP]dG·dC 11-mer duplex has been determined by incorporating DNA-DNA and intermolecular BP-DNA proton-proton distances defined by lower and upper bounds deduced from NOESY data sets as restraints in molecular mechanics computations in torsion angle space. The results establish that the covalently attached benzo[a]pyrenyl ring intercalates between intact Watson-Crick dC5·dG18 and dC7·dG16 base pairs. The modified deoxyguanosine [BP]-dG6 and its partner cytosine dC17 are looped out of the helix into the major groove. The purine ring of the [BP]dG6 residue is directed toward the 5'-end of the modified strand and stacks over the major groove edge of its 5'-side neighbor dC5 residue. The solution structure of the (-)-cis-anti-[BP]dG·dC 11-mer duplex is compared with those of the stereoisomeric (+)-trans-anti-[BP]dG [Cosman, M., et al. (1992) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 89, 1914-1918], (-)-trans-anti-[BP]dG [de los Santos, C., et al. (1992) Biochemistry 31, 5245-5252], and (+)-cis-anti-[BP]dG [Cosman, M., et al. (1993a) Biochemistry 32, 4146-4155] adducts positioned opposite dC in the same duplex sequence context. A key finding is that the long axes of the intercalated benzo[a]pyrenyl rings in the solution structures of the (+)- and (-)-cis-anti-[BP]dG·dC 11-mer duplexes are oriented in opposite directions with the benzylic ring directed toward the minor groove in the (+)-cis isomer and toward the major groove in the (-)-cis isomer. In addition, a comparison is also made with the solution structure of the (+)- trans-anti-[BP]dG adduct opposite a deletion site [Cosman, M., et al. (1994a) Biochemistry 33, 11507-11517] since this adduct duplex displays several conformational features in common with the structure of the (-)-cis-anti- [BP]dG·dC 11-mer duplex. The structures of both duplex adducts exhibit intercalation of the covalently attached ligand into the helix and displacement of the modified deoxyguanosine into the major groove. Studies of the biological activities of stereochemically defined BP-DNA adducts and the comparison of the solution structure of the (-)-cis-anti-[BP]dG·dC 11-mer duplex with its stereoisomeric counterparts should lead to new insights into the relationships between defined helical distortions and mutagenic specificity and activity.
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