Space-Time Block Coded Spatial Modulation for Indoor Visible Light Communications

Shimaa Naser, Lina Bariah, Sami Muhaidat, Mahmoud Al-Qutayri, Murat Uysal, Paschalis Sofotasios

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Visible light communication (VLC) has been recognized as a promising technology for handling the continuously increasing quality of service and connectivity requirements in modern wireless communications, particularly in indoor scenarios. In this context, the present work considers the integration of two distinct modulation schemes, namely spatial modulation (SM) with space time block codes (STBCs), aiming at improving the overall VLC system reliability. Based on this and in order to further enhance the achievable transmission data rate, we integrate quasi-orthogonal STBC (QOSTBC) with SM, since relaxing the orthogonality condition of OSTBC ultimately provides a higher coding rate. Then, we generalize the developed results to any number of active light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and any M-ary pulse amplitude modulation size. Furthermore, we derive a tight and tractable upper bound for the corresponding bit error rate (BER) by considering a simple two-step decoding procedure to detect the indices of the transmitting LEDs and then decode the signal domain symbols. Notably, the obtained results demonstrate that QOSTBC with SM enhances the achievable BER compared to SM with repetition coding (RC-SM). Finally, we compare STBC-SM with both multiple active SM (MASM) and RC-SM in terms of the achievable BER and overall data rate, which further justifies the usefulness of the proposed scheme.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalIEEE Photonics Journal
Issue number1
StatePublished - Feb 1 2022


  • MIMO
  • SSK
  • STBCs
  • VLC
  • repetition coding
  • spatial modulation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


Dive into the research topics of 'Space-Time Block Coded Spatial Modulation for Indoor Visible Light Communications'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this