Order is defined by actuarial calculations of tolerable risk rather than by consensus and conformity to norms (Simon 1988). New policing strategies seek to diminish risks through the production of knowledge about potential offenders (Ericson and Haggerty 1997). In general, modern democratic countries have experienced a pluralizing of policing, which joins private and community-based strategies that focus on protection of space with public strategies that detect and punish offenders (Bayley and Shearing 1996).
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