Massive MIMO, especially in the millimeter- wave frequency bands, has been recognized as a promising technique to enhance spectrum and energy efficiency, as well as network coverage for wireless communications. Most research in massive MIMO just uses the extended conventional MIMO channel model by directly assuming that the channel dimensionality becomes large. With massive numbers of antennas, however, there exists a non-negligible propagation delay across the large array aperture, which then causes a transmitted symbol to reach different antennas with different delays, thereby rendering conventional MIMO channel models inapplicable. Such a phenomenon is known as the spatial-wideband effect in the areas of array signal processing and radar signal processing, and introduces the beam squint effect in beamforming. However, the spatial-wideband effect and the related beam squint issue are seldom studied in massive MIMO communications. To design a practical massive MIMO system, it is important to understand when the spatial-wideband effect appears and how it affects signal transmission, how the spatial-wideband effect interacts with the frequency-wideband effect (frequency selectivity), especially for multi-carrier modulations such as orthogonal frequency- division multiplexing (OFDM), and how we should re-design the transceiver. In this article we suggest a new massive MIMO channel model that embraces both the spatial- and frequency- wideband effects, and discuss these issues.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Computer Science Applications
- Computer Networks and Communications
- Electrical and Electronic Engineering