Speech-based disclosure systems: Effects of modality, gender of prompt, and gender of user

Clifford Nass, Erica Robles, Charles Heenan, Hilary Bienstock, Marissa Treinen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Disclosure of personal information is valuable to individuals, governments, and corporations. This experiment explores the role interface design plays in maximizing disclosure. Participants (N = 100) were asked to disclose personal information to a telephone-based speech user interface (SUI) in a 3 (recorded speech vs. synthesized speech vs. text-based interface) by 2 (gender of participant) by 2 (gender of voice) between-participants experiment (with no voice manipulation in the text conditions). Synthetic speech participants exhibited significantly less disclosure and less comfort with the system than text-based or recorded-speech participants. Females were more sensitive to differences between synthetic and recorded speech. There were significant interactions between modality and gender of speech, while there were no gender identification effects. Implications for the design of speech-based information-gathering systems are outlined.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)113-121
Number of pages9
JournalInternational Journal of Speech Technology
Issue number2
StatePublished - Apr 2003


  • Disclosure
  • Modality
  • Recorded voice
  • Speech user interface (SUI)
  • Text-to-speech (TTS)
  • Voice user interface (VUI)

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Software
  • Language and Linguistics
  • Human-Computer Interaction
  • Linguistics and Language
  • Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition


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