Spirituality, Depression, Living Alone, and Perceived Health Among Korean Older Adults in the Community

Kwang Soo You, Hae Ok Lee, Joyce J. Fitzpatrick, Susie Kim, Eiji Marui, Jung Su Lee, Paul Cook

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Both theoretical and empirical studies have documented the protective effect of religiosity and spirituality on general health in older adults in community and hospital settings; however, no study has documented the relationship between spirituality and depression among older adults living alone in communities in Korea. We tested two hypotheses: Hypothesis 1: Korean older adults living alone would be more depressed and less healthy than older adults living with family, and Hypothesis 2: Individuals who are more religious and spiritual would report a lower level of depression and a higher level of general health even when other demographic and living status variables are controlled. A descriptive, comparative, and correlational design with a convenience sampling method was conducted among community-dwelling Korean older adults in Chounbook Providence, South Korea. This study included 152 men and women older than 65 years old. Hypothesis 1 was supported as Korean older adults living alone were significantly more depressed than were older adults living with family (P < .01). However, for Hypotheses 2, only spirituality activities and Spirituality Index of Well-Being scores were significantly associated with general health and/or depression (P < .01), but there were no relationships between the variables of attendance and importance of religion with general health and depression.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)309-322
Number of pages14
JournalArchives of Psychiatric Nursing
Issue number4
StatePublished - Aug 2009

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Phychiatric Mental Health


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