Degradation processes in materials and structures are often catalyzed by, or accompanied by chemical reactions. Direct monitoring of such chemical processes, in advance of the emergence of the corresponding physical damage, is an effective means of enhancing infrastructure safety and serviceability. Complementing existing knowledge of materials performance, which is based on historical patterns and theoretical principles, real time in-situ chemical analysis is instrumental in improving practices of materials health management. This presentation describes the concept of real time in-situ Materials analysis in civil infrastructure using embedded optical fiber probes. Target species discussed here include detection of moisture, chlorides, and products of metal dissolution.