Many auditory neurons possess low-threshold potassium currents (IKLT) that enhance their responsiveness to rapid and coincident inputs. We present recordings from gerbil medial superior olivary (MSO) neurons in vitro and modeling results that illustrate how IKLT improves the detection of brief signals, of weak signals in noise, and of the coincidence of signals (as needed for sound localization). We quantify the enhancing effect of IKLT on temporal processing with several measures: signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), reverse correlation or spike-triggered averaging of input currents, and inter-aural time difference (ITD) tuning curves. To characterize how IKLT, which activates below spike threshold, influences a neuron's voltage rise toward threshold, i.e., how it filters the inputs, we focus first on the response to weak and noisy signals. Cells and models were stimulated with a computer-generated steady barrage of random inputs, mimicking weak synaptic conductance transients (the "noise"), together with a larger but still subthreshold postsynaptic conductance, EPSG (the "signal"). Reduction of IKLT decreased the SNR, mainly due to an increase in spontaneous firing (more "false positive"). The spike-triggered reverse correlation indicated that IKLT shortened the integration time for spike generation. IKLT also heightened the model's timing selectivity for coincidence detection of simulated binaural inputs. Further, ITD tuning is shifted in favor of a slope code rather than a place code by precise and rapid inhibition onto MSO cells (Brand et al. 2002). In several ways, low-threshold outward currents are seen to shape integration of weak and strong signals in auditory neurons.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- General Computer Science