This book has introduced emerging cyber threats that exploit human vulnerabilities to obtain initial credentials from human users. Cognitive security is a primary concern that needs to be addressed in HCPSs. We have presented a system-scientific foundation that builds on and bridges the fields of psychology, neuroscience, data science, decision theory, and game theory. Such a foundation has led to transdisciplinary socio-technical solutions that protect humans from cognitive security threats and improve the resiliency of HCPSs. In this chapter, we summarize the book, discuss several insights, explore potential applications, and suggest potential directions for future work.