Sunlight inactivation of poliovirus type 3 (PV3), adenovirus type 2 (HAdV2), and two bacteriophage (MS2 and PRD1) was investigated in an array of coastal waters to better understand solar inactivation mechanisms and the effect of natural water constituents on observed inactivation rates (kobs). Reactor scale inactivation experiments were conducted using a solar simulator, and kobs for each virus was measured in a sensitizer-free control and five unfiltered surface water samples collected from different sources. k obs values varied between viruses in the same water matrix, and for each virus in different matrices, with PV3 having the fastest and MS2 the slowest kobs in all waters. When exposed to full-spectrum sunlight, the presence of photosensitizers increased kobs of HAdV2, PRD1 and MS2, but not PV3, which provides evidence that the exogenous sunlight inactivation mechanism, involving damage by exogenously produced reactive intermediates, played a greater role for these viruses. While PV3 inactivation was observed to be dominated by endogenous mechanisms, this may be due to a masking of exogenous kobs by significantly faster endogenous k obs. Results illustrate that differences in water composition can shift absolute and relative inactivation rates of viruses, which has important implications for natural wastewater treatment systems, solar disinfection (SODIS), and the use of indicator organisms for monitoring water quality.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Environmental Chemistry