Robotic tasks often exceed the scope of steady-state or periodic behavior, which necessitates generally-applicable models of actuators intended to generate transient or aperiodic motion. However, existing electromechanical models of servomotors typically omit consideration of the switching power converter circuits required for directional, speed, or torque control. In this study, a multi-domain framework is established for switched electromechanical dynamics in servomotor systems for their analysis and control in general aperiodic tasks including transient phases. The switched electromechanical dynamics is derived from the individual models of the internal DC motor, gear train, and H-bridge circuit. The coupled models comprehensively integrate all possible distinct switching configurations of on-state, off-state, and dead time. A combination of cycle averaging with piecewise analytical solutions of the non-smooth dynamics is introduced to handle different temporal scales from high-frequency electrical to low-frequency mechanical variables. System parameters were estimated from experimental data using a dual-servomotor test platform. The model was validated for predictive accuracy against measured data in two distinct tasks - dynamic braking of a pendulum system and sinusoidal trajectory following. The model was also used to formulate the servomotor power consumption, which was implemented for optimal control demonstration and energy analysis. In particular, the servomotor power consumption model provided true optimality (minimization) when compared with the squared rotor torque and the positive rotor mechanical power that are commonly used as proxy models. While the focus of this work is on permanent-magnet, armature-controlled brushed DC servomotors, the approach is applicable to general electromechanical systems with switching-based control.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Statistical and Nonlinear Physics
- Mathematical Physics
- Physics and Astronomy(all)
- Applied Mathematics