Synergized photothermal therapy and magnetic field induced hyperthermia via bismuthene for lung cancer combinatorial treatment

Açelya Yilmazer, Zafer Eroglu, Cansu Gurcan, Arianna Gazzi, Okan Ekim, Buse Sundu, Cemile Gokce, Ahmet Ceylan, Linda Giro, Mehmet Altay Unal, Fikret Arı, Ahmet Ekicibil, Ozge Ozgenç Çinar, Berfin Ilayda Ozturk, Omur Besbinar, Mine Ensoy, Demet Cansaran-Duman, Lucia Gemma Delogu, Onder Metin

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Thanks to its intrinsic properties, two-dimensional (2D) bismuth (bismuthene) can serve as a multimodal nanotherapeutic agent for lung cancer acting through multiple mechanisms, including photothermal therapy (PTT), magnetic field-induced hyperthermia (MH), immunogenic cell death (ICD), and ferroptosis. To investigate this possibility, we synthesized bismuthene from the exfoliation of 3D layered bismuth, prepared through a facile method that we developed involving surfactant-assisted chemical reduction, with a specific focus on improving its magnetic properties. The bismuthene nanosheets showed high in vitro and in vivo anti-cancer activity after simultaneous light and magnetic field exposure in lung adenocarcinoma cells. Only when light and magnetic field are applied together, we can achieve the highest anti-cancer activity compared to the single treatment groups. We have further shown that ICD-dependent mechanisms were involved during this combinatorial treatment strategy. Beyond ICD, bismuthene-based PTT and MH also resulted in an increase in ferroptosis mechanisms both in vitro and in vivo, in addition to apoptotic pathways. Finally, hemolysis in human whole blood and a wide variety of assays in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells indicated that the bismuthene nanosheets were biocompatible and did not alter immune function. These results showed that bismuthene has the potential to serve as a biocompatible platform that can arm multiple therapeutic approaches against lung cancer.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number100825
JournalMaterials Today Bio
StatePublished - Dec 2023


  • Bismuthene
  • Cancer therapy
  • Magnetic field induced hyperthermia
  • Photothermal therapy

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biotechnology
  • Bioengineering
  • Biomaterials
  • Biomedical Engineering
  • Molecular Biology
  • Cell Biology


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