Systematic review of end stage renal disease in Pakistan: Identifying implementation research outcomes

H Alrashed, J Miele, J Prasad, D Adenikinju, C Iloegbu, J Patena, D Vieira, J Gyamfi, E Peprah

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Aim and objectives The aim of this study was to conduct a systematic review analysis to identify and evaluate the available literature on implementation science outcomes research in relation to End Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) in Pakistan. Methods A systematic database search of PubMed, Web of Science, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, CINAHL, and Ovid was conducted through October 22nd 2022, without any restrictions on publication dates. A screening and data extraction tool, Covidence, was used to evaluate the literature against our inclusion and exclusion criteria. Furthermore, a Mixed Methods Appraisal Tool (MMAT) was used to evaluate the selected studies. Results We identified four studies that presented findings of implementation outcomes research which were related to appropriateness, feasibility, and acceptability. Appropriateness was examined using knowledge scores (p = 0.022) and medication adherence scores (p < 0.05) that showed statistical significance between the control and intervention groups. Acceptability was assessed through a cross sectional quantitative descriptive study that evaluated the reasons for refusal and acceptance of treatment in a cohort of patients suffering from ESRD. Feasibility was examined in one cross sectional, and one mixed methods study that aimed to evaluate and understand the impact of initiating dialysis treatment and the feasibility of maintaining it in low-income families that care for children or adults with ESRD. Conclusion The preliminary results of this review indicate a gap in the availability of implementation research studies about ESRD in Pakistan. The burden of ESRD, and the implementation methods by which it is treated is notable in Pakistan and requires evidence-based measures to be implemented to support the critical healthcare delivery platforms that provide treatment.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numbere0296243
Number of pages10
JournalPloS one
Issue number12 December
StatePublished - Dec 27 2023


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