Take-over time: A cross-cultural study of take-over responses in highly automated driving

Gregor Strle, Yilun Xing, Erika E. Miller, Linda Ng Boyle, Jaka Sodnik

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The article presents a cross-cultural study of take-over performance in highly automated driving. As take-over performance is an important measure of safe driving, potential cultural differences could have important implications for the future development of automated vehicles. The study was conducted in two culturally different locations, Seattle, WA (n = 20) and Ljubljana, Slovenia (n = 18), using a driving simulator. While driving, participants voluntarily engaged in secondary tasks. The take-over request (TOR) was triggered at a specific time during the drive, and take-over time and type of response (none, brake, steer) were measured for each participant. Results show significant differences in take-over performance between the two locations. In Seattle 30% of participants in Seattle did not respond to TOR; the remaining 70% responded by braking only, compared to Slovenian participants who all responded by either braking or steering. Participants from Seattle responded significantly more slowly to TOR (M = +1285 ms) than Slovenian participants. Secondary task engagement at TOR also had an effect, with distracted US participants’ response taking significantly longer (M = +1596 ms) than Slovenian participants. Reported differences in take-over performance may indicate cultural differences in driving behavior and trust in automated driving.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number7959
JournalApplied Sciences (Switzerland)
Issue number17
StatePublished - Sep 2021


  • Driving behavior
  • Highly automated driving
  • Secondary task engagement
  • Take-over response
  • Take-over-time

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Materials Science
  • Instrumentation
  • General Engineering
  • Process Chemistry and Technology
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Fluid Flow and Transfer Processes


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