A bowl-shaped calixarene with its exciting host-guest chemistry is a versatile supramolecular building block for the synthesis of distinct coordination cages or metal-organic frameworks. However, its utility in the synthesis of crystalline covalent organic frameworks (COFs) remains challenging, presumably due to its conformational flexibility. Here, we report the synthesis of a periodic 2D extended organic network of calixarenes joined by a linear benzidine linker via dynamic imine bonds. By tuning the interaction among neighboring calixarene units through varying the concentration in the reaction mixture, we show the selective formation of interpenetrated (CX4-BD-1) and non-interpenetrated (CX4-BD-2) frameworks. The cone-shaped calixarene moiety in the structural backbone allows for the interweaving of two neighboring layers in CX4-BD-1, making it a unique example of interpenetrated 2D layers. Due to the high negative surface charge from calixarene units, both COFs have shown high performance in charge-selective dye removal and an exceptional selectivity for cationic dyes irrespective of their molecular size. The charge distribution of the COFs and the resulting selectivity for the cationic dyes were further investigated using computational methods.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Colloid and Surface Chemistry