Temporary materials used in prosthodontics: The effect of composition, fabrication mode, and aging on mechanical properties

Edmara T.P. Bergamo, Tiago M.B. Campos, Mariana M.T. Piza, Eliezer Gutierrez, Adolfo C.O. Lopes, Lukasz Witek, Paulo G. Coelho, Marcos Celestrino, Laura F.de Carvalho, Ernesto B. Benalcázar Jalkh, Estevam A. Bonfante

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Purpose: To evaluate the effect of composition, fabrication mode, and thermal cycling on the mechanical properties of different polymeric systems used for temporary dental prostheses. Materials and methods: Standard bar-shaped specimens (25 × 2 × 2 mm) were fabricated of six polymeric systems of varying compositions and fabrication modes (n = 10/group): conventional PMMA (Alike, GC) – group CGC; conventional PMMA (Dêncor, Clássico) – group CD; bis-acryl (Tempsmart, GC) – group BGC; bis-acryl (Yprov, Yller) – group BY; milled PMMA (TelioCAD, Ivoclar) - group MI; 3D printed bis-acryl – (Cosmos Temp, Yller) group PY. Half of the specimens were subjected to 5000 thermal cycles (5 °C to 55 °C). Three-point bending tests were performed using a universal testing machine with a crosshead speed set to 0.5 mm/min. Flexural strength and elastic modulus were calculated from the collected data. FTIR spectra were recorded pre and post curing and after thermal cycling to evaluate material composition and degree of conversion. Energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) were utilized to examine the composition and micromorphology of the systems, respectively. Data were analyzed using two-analysis of variance and Tukey tests (α = 0.05). Results: FTIR spectra indicated that BGC, BY and PY groups corresponded to urethane dimethacrylate systems (bis-acryl), while CGC, CD, and MI groups corresponded to monomethacrylate systems, polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA). Bis-acryl BGC system yeilded the highest flexural strength (80 MPa), followed by the milled PMMA MI system (71 MPa), both statistically significant different relative to other groups. Bis-acryl BY exhibited the lowest flexural strength (27 MPa). Thermocycling significantly increased the flexural strength of all polymeric systems (∼10–15 MPa), except for the 3D-printed PY group. Bis-acryl BGC (1.89 GPa) and conventional PMMA CGC (1.66 GPa) groups exhibited the highest elastic modulus, followed by milled PMMA MI group (1.51 GPa) and conventional PMMA CD (1.45 GPa) systems, with significant difference detected between BGC group and MI and CD groups. The 3D printed PY (0.78 GPa) and bis-acryl BY (0.47 GPa) systems presented the lowest elastic modulus. Thermocycling did not have a significant influence on the elastic modulus. FTIR spectra indicate water sorption and release of unreacted monomers as well as increased degree of conversion (∼5–12%) after thermal cycling. Conclusion: Composition and fabrication mode and thermal cycling significantly affected the mechanical properties of polymeric systems used for temporary dental prostheses.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number105333
JournalJournal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
StatePublished - Sep 2022


  • Dental prosthesis
  • Mechanical properties
  • Polymers
  • Temporary prosthesis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biomaterials
  • Biomedical Engineering
  • Mechanics of Materials


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