Ten States of Nonvolatile Memory through Engineering Ferromagnetic Remanent Magnetization

Hai Zhong, Yan Wen, Yuelei Zhao, Qiang Zhang, Qikun Huang, Yanxue Chen, Jianwang Cai, Xixiang Zhang, Run wei Li, Lihui Bai, Shishou Kang, Shishen Yan, Yufeng Tian

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Emerging nonvolatile multilevel memory devices have been regarded as a promising solution to meet the increasing demand of high-density memory with low-power consumption. In particular, decimal system of the new computers instead of binary system could be developed if ten nonvolatile states are realized. Here, a general remanent magnetism engineering method is proposed for realizing multiple reliable magnetic and resistance states, not depending on a specific material or device structure. Especially, as a proof-of-concept demonstration, ten states of nonvolatile memory based on the manipulation of ferromagnetic remanent magnetization have been revealed in both Co/Pt magnetic multilayers with strong perpendicular magnetic anisotropy and MgO-based magnetic tunneling junctions at room temperature. Considering ferromagnets have been one of the key factors that enabled the information revolution from its inception, this state-of-the-art remanent magnetism engineering approach has a very broad application prospect in the field of spintronics.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number1806460
JournalAdvanced Functional Materials
Issue number2
StatePublished - Jan 10 2019


  • magnetic tunneling junctions
  • magnetoresistance
  • multilevel states
  • nonvolatile memory
  • remanent magnetization

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • General Chemistry
  • General Materials Science
  • Electrochemistry
  • Biomaterials


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