Testosterone in prostate cancer: The Bethesda consensus

Bob Djavan, James Eastham, Leonard Gomella, Bertrand Tombal, Samir Taneja, Seyed Saeid Dianat, Amir Kazzazi, Neal Shore, Per Anders Abrahamsson, Philippa Cheetham, Judd Moul, Herbert Lepor, E. David Crawford

    Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

    Abstract

    What's known on the subject? and What does the study add? Androgen stimulation of prostate cancer (PCa) cells has been the basis for extensive studies evaluating the role of androgen in PCa but the diagnostic measurement of androgen as well as androgen values that potentially influence prognosis are unclear in patients with PCa. The 50 ng/dL threshold has been questioned as a result of reports indicating worse outcomes for levels between 20 and 50 ng/dL. Instead, a 20 ng/dL threshold for serum testosterone after androgren deprivation therapy in patients with advanced PCa was recommended. OBJECTIVE Androgen stimulation of prostate cancer (PCa) cells has been extensively studied. The increasing trend of using serum testosterone as an absolute surrogate for castration state means that the diagnostic measurement of testosterone and the values potentially influencing prognosis must be better understood. This is especially important when PCa progresses from an endocrine to an intracrine status. PATIENTS AND METHODS We performed a literature review using the MEDLINE database for publications on: (i) hormonal changes with androgen deprivation therapy (ADT); (ii) monitoring hormonal therapy with testosterone measurement; (iii) the efficacy of intermittent androgen deprivation (IAD) compared with continuous androgen deprivation; (iv) the underlying mechanisms of castration-resistance; and (v) novel treatments for castration-resistant PCa (CRPCa). RESULTS The optimum serum castration levels to be achieved with ADT are still debated. Recently, the 50 ng/dL threshold has been questioned because of reports indicating worse outcomes when levels between 20 and 50 ng/dL were studied. Instead, a 20 ng/dL threshold for serum testosterone after ADT in patients with advanced prostate cancer was recommended. CONCLUSION Understanding the mechanisms of androgen biosynthesis relating to PCa as well as prognostic implications might achieve a consensus regarding the role of ADT for both the androgen-sensitive and -insensitive disease state.

    Original languageEnglish (US)
    Pages (from-to)344-352
    Number of pages9
    JournalBJU International
    Volume110
    Issue number3
    DOIs
    StatePublished - Aug 2012

    Keywords

    • castration level
    • castration resistance
    • hormonal therapy
    • intermittent androgen deprivation
    • prostate cancer
    • serum testosterone

    ASJC Scopus subject areas

    • Urology

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  • Cite this

    Djavan, B., Eastham, J., Gomella, L., Tombal, B., Taneja, S., Dianat, S. S., Kazzazi, A., Shore, N., Abrahamsson, P. A., Cheetham, P., Moul, J., Lepor, H., & Crawford, E. D. (2012). Testosterone in prostate cancer: The Bethesda consensus. BJU International, 110(3), 344-352. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1464-410X.2011.10719.x