Previous Monte Carlo investigations by Wojciechowski have found two unusual phases in two-dimensional systems of anisotropic hard particles: a tetratic phase of fourfold symmetry for hard squares [Comput. Methods Sci. Tech. 10, 235 (2004)], and a nonperiodic degenerate solid phase for hard-disk dimers [Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 3168 (1991)]. In this work, we study a system of hard rectangles of aspect ratio two, i.e., hard-square dimers (or dominos), and demonstrate that it exhibits phases with both of these unusual properties. The liquid shows quasi-long-range tetratic order, with no nematic order. The solid phase we observe is a nonperiodic tetratic phase having the structure of a random tiling of the square lattice with dominos with the well-known degeneracy entropy 1.79 kB per particle. Our simulations do not conclusively establish the thermodynamic stability of this orientationally disordered solid; however, there are strong indications that this phase is glassy. Our observations are consistent with a two-stage phase transition scenario developed by Kosterlitz and co-workers with two continuous phase transitions, the first from isotropic to tetratic liquid, and the second from tetratic liquid to solid. We obtain similar results with both a classical Monte Carlo method using true rectangles and a novel molecular dynamics algorithm employing rectangles with rounded corners.
|Original language||English (US)|
|Journal||Physical Review B - Condensed Matter and Materials Physics|
|State||Published - 2006|
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
- Condensed Matter Physics