The burden of Cardiovascular diseases in Jordan: a longitudinal analysis from the global burden of disease study, 1990–2019

Yazan A. Al-Ajlouni, Omar Al Ta’ani, Ghaith Shamaileh, Yazan Nagi, Mohammad Tanashat, Farah Al-Bitar, Dustin T. Duncan, Nour Makarem

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Background: Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) is the leading cause of mortality worldwide. While countries in the Arab world continue to lack public health data and be severely understudied in health research, previous research has shown that compared to 1990, CVDs had a higher burden of disease in the Arab World in 2010. Jordan, a middle-income Arab country, is profiled with unique attributes such as a dual-sector healthcare system, political stability, and its role as a haven for refugees and migrants. These distinctive factors emphasize Jordan’s suitability as a case study. This investigation aims to quantify CVD burden in Jordan and identify risk factors, contributing to a broader understanding of health challenges in the Arab region and beyond. Methods: The Global Burden of Disease (GBD) dataset was used to estimate prevalence, death, and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) as age-standardized rates from 1990 to 2019. We calculated percentage change for nine specific CVDs and reported trends by gender and age groups. Additionally, data on twelve a priori selected behavioral, clinical, and environmental risk factors attributing to overall age-standardized CVDs DALY were reported per 100,00 population. Results: In 2019, the age-standardized CVD prevalence, death, and DALYs rates in Jordan were 7980 (95% uncertainty interval [UI] 7629, 8360), 248 (95% UI 211, 288), and 4647 (95% UI 4028, 5388), respectively. Despite an increase in the absolute number of mortality and prevalence, between 1990 and 2019, the age-standardized prevalence, death, and DALYs rates all decreased by 5.5%, 45.1%, and 46.7%, respectively. In 2019, the leading risk factors contributing to overall age-standardized CVDs DALY per 100,000 population were high systolic blood pressure, high BMI, dietary risks, and high LDL cholesterol. Conclusion: Despite decreasing burden rate of CVDs in Jordan between 1990 and 2019, CVDs remain the leading cause of mortality in Jordan, with an increase in the total number of prevalence and mortality. Overall, this contributes to increased healthcare costs. Further research is required to quantify the burden of CVDs and understand it better. Intervention measures and policies tailored to specific CVDs should be designed to reduce the burden of CVDs in Jordan.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number879
JournalBMC public health
Issue number1
StatePublished - Dec 2024


  • Burden of Disease
  • Cardiovascular diseases
  • Global Burden of diseases
  • Jordan
  • Risk factors

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health


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