Computational models proposed that the medial temporal lobe (MTL) contributes importantly to error-driven learning, though little direct in-vivo evidence for this hypothesis exists. To test this, we recorded in the entorhinal cortex (EC) and hippocampus (HPC) as macaques performed an associative learning task using an error-driven learning strategy, defined as better performance after error relative to correct trials. Error-detection signals were more prominent in the EC relative to HPC. Early in learning hippocampal but not EC neurons signaled error-driven learning by increasing their population stimulus-selectivity following error trials. This same pattern was not seen in another task where error-driven learning was not used. After learning, different populations of cells in both the EC and HPC signaled long-term memory of newly learned associations with enhanced stimulus-selective responses. These results suggest prominent but differential contributions of EC and HPC to learning from errors and a particularly important role of the EC in error-detection.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Medicine (miscellaneous)
- Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
- Agricultural and Biological Sciences(all)