The defeat of the Winograd Schema Challenge

Vid Kocijan, Ernest Davis, Thomas Lukasiewicz, Gary Marcus, Leora Morgenstern

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


The Winograd Schema Challenge—a set of twin sentences involving pronoun reference disambiguation that seem to require the use of commonsense knowledge—was proposed by Hector Levesque in 2011. By 2019, a number of AI systems, based on large pre-trained transformer-based language models and fine-tuned on these kinds of problems, achieved better than 90% accuracy. In this paper, we review the history of the Winograd Schema Challenge and discuss the lasting contributions of the flurry of research that has taken place on the WSC in the last decade. We discuss the significance of various datasets developed for WSC, and the research community's deeper understanding of the role of surrogate tasks in assessing the intelligence of an AI system.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number103971
JournalArtificial Intelligence
StatePublished - Dec 2023


  • Commonsense reasoning
  • Winograd Schema Challenge

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Language and Linguistics
  • Linguistics and Language
  • Artificial Intelligence


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