The economic payoffs of integrated malaria control in the Zambian copperbelt between 1930 and 1950

Jürg Utzinger, Yesim Tozan, Fadi Doumani, Burton H. Singer

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


It has long been suggested that malaria is delaying the economic development of countries that are most severely affected by the disease. Several studies have documented the economic consequences of malaria at the household level, primarily in communities engaged in subsistence farming. A missing element is the appraisal of the economic impact of malaria on the industrial and service sectors that will probably become the backbone of many developing economies. We estimate the economic effects of integrated malaria control implemented during the colonial period and sustained for 20 years in four copper mining communities of the former Northern Rhodesia (now Zambia). Integrated malaria control was characterized by strong emphasis on environmental management, while part of the mining communities also benefited from rapid diagnosis and treatment and the use of bednets. The programmes were highly successful as an estimated 14 122 deaths, 517 284 malaria attacks and 942 347 work shift losses were averted. Overall, 127 226 disability adjusted life years (DALYs) were averted per 3-year incremental period. The cumulative costs of malaria control interventions were US$ 11 169 472 (in 1995 US$). Because the control programmes were so effective, the mining companies attracted a large reservoir of migrant labourers and sustained healthy work forces. The programmes averted an estimated US$ 796 622 in direct treatment costs and US$ 5 678 745 in indirect costs as a result of reduced work absenteeism. Within a few years of programme initiation, Northern Rhodesia became the leading copper producer in Africa, and mining generated the dominant share of national income. Copper production and revenues, which increased dramatically during malaria control interventions, amounted to the equivalent of US$ 7.1 billion (in 1995 US$). Integrated malaria control in copper mining communities was a sound investment. It had payoff for public and occupational health, generally, and without it copper extraction and social and economic development would have been impossible.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)657-677
Number of pages21
JournalTropical Medicine and International Health
Issue number8
StatePublished - 2002


  • Copper extraction
  • Cost-effectiveness
  • Economics
  • Environmental management
  • Industrial setting
  • Integrated control
  • Labour force and working capacity
  • Malaria
  • Zambia

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Parasitology
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
  • Infectious Diseases


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