The effect of dietary glycemic properties on markers of inflammation, insulin resistance, and body composition in postmenopausal American women: An ancillary study from a multicenter protein supplementation trial

Violeta Stojkovic, Christine A. Simpson, Rebecca R. Sullivan, Anna Maria Cusano, Jane E. Kerstetter, Anne M. Kenny, Karl L. Insogna, Jessica D. Bihuniak

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Controversy exists as to whether high glycemic index/glycemic load (GI/GL) diets increase the risk of chronic inflammation, which has been postulated as a pathogenic intermediary between such diets and age-related alterations in body composition and insulin resistance. We conducted an ancillary study to a randomized, double-blind trial comparing the effects of a whey protein supplement (PRO, n = 38) and a maltodextrin supplement (CHO, n = 46) on bone density to evaluate the impact of a calibrated increase in GI/GL on inflammation, insulin resistance, and body composition in a healthy aging population. Markers of inflammation, HOMA, body composition, and GI/GL (estimated from 3-day food records) were assessed at baseline and 18 months. By 18 months, the GL in the CHO group increased by 34%, 88.4 ± 5.2 → 118.5 ± 4.9 and did not change in the PRO group, 86.5 ± 4.1 → 82.0 ± 3.6 (p < 0.0001). Despite this change there were no differences in serum CRP, IL-6, or HOMA at 18 months between the two groups, nor were there significant associations between GL and inflammatory markers. However, trunk lean mass (p = 0.0375) and total lean mass (p = 0.038) were higher in the PRO group compared to the CHO group at 18 months There were also significant associations for GL and change in total fat mass (r = 0.3, p = 0.01), change in BMI (r = 0.3, p = 0.005), and change in the lean-to-fat mass ratio (r = −0.3, p = 0.002). Our data suggest that as dietary GL increases within the moderate range, there is no detectable change in markers of inflammation or insulin resistance, despite which there is a negative effect on body composition.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number484
JournalNutrients
Volume9
Issue number5
DOIs
StatePublished - May 11 2017

Keywords

  • Body composition
  • Glycemic index
  • Glycemic load
  • Insulin resistance

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Food Science
  • Nutrition and Dietetics

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