The effect of implant design on insertion torque and immediate micromotion

Amilcar C. Freitas, Estevam A. Bonfante, Gabriela Giro, Malvin N. Janal, Paulo G. Coelho

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Objectives: To evaluate the effect of insertion torque on micromotion to a lateral force in three different implant designs. Material and methods: Thirty-six implants with identical thread design, but different cutting groove design were divided in three groups: (1) non-fluted (no cutting groove, solid screw-form); (2) fluted (90° cut at the apex, tap design); and (3) Blossom (Patent pending) (non-fluted with engineered trimmed thread design). The implants were screwed into polyurethane foam blocks and the insertion torque was recorded after each turn of 90° by a digital torque gauge. Controlled lateral loads of 10N followed by increments of 5 up to 100N were sequentially applied by a digital force gauge on a titanium abutment. Statistical comparison was performed with two-way mixed model ANOVA that evaluated implant design group, linear effects of turns and displacement loads, and their interaction. Results: While insertion torque increased as a function of number of turns for each design, the slope and final values increased (P<0.001) progressively from the Blossom to the fluted to the non-fluted design (M±standard deviation [SD]=64.1±26.8, 139.4±17.2, and 205.23±24.3Ncm, respectively). While a linear relationship between horizontal displacement and lateral force was observed for each design, the slope and maximal displacement increased (P<0.001) progressively from the Blossom to the fluted to the non-fluted design (M±SD=530±57.7, 585.9±82.4, and 782.33±269.4μm, respectively). There was negligible to moderate levels of association between insertion torque and lateral displacement in the Blossom , fluted and non-fluted design groups, respectively. Conclusion: Insertion torque was reduced in implant macrodesigns that incorporated cutting edges, and lesser insertion torque was generally associated with decreased micromovement. However, insertion torque and micromotion were unrelated within implant designs, particularly for those designs showing the least insertion torque.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)113-118
Number of pages6
JournalClinical Oral Implants Research
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 2012


  • Dental implant
  • Insertion torque
  • Micromotion
  • Osseointegration
  • Primary stability

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Oral Surgery


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