The effect of processing speed on verbal and visual memory of adults with a chronic acquired brain injury

Maria Camilla P. Estelle, Gerald T. Voelbel

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Objective: Memory problems are among the most frequently reported cognitive complaints by individuals with an acquired brain injury (ABI). Processing speed and working memory deficits are often the result of ABI. These cognitive deficits significantly impact the acquisition and retention of information necessary for memory formation. This study investigated the influence of processing speed and working memory on immediate and delayed recall for verbal and visual memory, as well as overall memory recall in adults living with a chronic ABI. Methods: Sixty-three participants living with a chronic ABI, who were at least one-year post-injury, were cognitively assessed with the CNS-Vital Signs (CNS-VS) computerized cognitive battery and Wechsler Test of Adult Reading. Results: The CNS-VS Processing Speed significantly predicted delayed recall for verbal memory and overall memory performance. The CNS-VS Working Memory was not a significant predictor of memory recall. Conclusions: Processing speed deficits negatively impact memory in individuals with a chronic ABI. These findings suggest the memory recall of adults with a chronic ABI is associated with poor processing speed and poor acquisition of information. Therefore, cognitive rehabilitation that improves processing speed should be the focus for individuals with ABI to improve memory performance as well as impaired processing speed.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)170-176
Number of pages7
JournalBrain Injury
Issue number3
StatePublished - 2024


  • Acquired brain injury
  • processing speed
  • stroke
  • traumatic brain injury
  • working memory

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Neuroscience (miscellaneous)
  • Developmental and Educational Psychology
  • Clinical Neurology


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