The foundational math skills of Indian children

Andreas de Barros, Alejandro J. Ganimian

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


We leverage data on learning for 101,084 public-school students in grades 4, 6, and 8 across 19 Indian states to diagnose their mathematic skills. These data allow us to diagnose their achievement on less frequently assessed skills. We use a novel approach to estimate the share of students who can meet fourth-grade standards. We find that the foundational skills of children are even lower than previously documented: 52% mastered frequently assessed skills, but only 27% mastered typically unassessed skills. These children also make less progress than believed. Gender gaps in these skills emerge between grades 4 and 6 and persist.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number102336
JournalEconomics of Education Review
StatePublished - Feb 2023


  • Foundational skills
  • Gender
  • India
  • Learning crisis
  • Mathematics

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Education
  • Economics and Econometrics


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