The morning rush hour: Predictability and commuter stress

Gary W. Evans, Richard E. Wener, Donald Phillips

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Although it is obvious that commuting to work is stressful, it is not at all clear why this is so. This study examined the potential role of commute unpredictability in the stressfulness of the daily journey to work among a population of rail commuters. Men and women who perceived their commute to work as more unpredictable felt greater levels of stress and evidenced higher elevations of salivary cortisol. Expected differences in motivation in task performance did not occur. Limitations of these cross-sectional findings are discussed along with future research needs. The possible roles of commute predictability and stress in transportation mode choice are also delineated.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)521-530
Number of pages10
JournalEnvironment and Behavior
Issue number4
StatePublished - 2002

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Environmental Science


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