Infants born with low or high (“at-risk”) birthweights are at greater risk of adverse health outcomes across the life course. Our objective was to examine whether geographic hotspots of low and high birthweight prevalence in New York City had different patterns of neighborhood risk factors. We performed census tract–level geospatial clustering analyses using (1) birthweight prevalence and maternal residential address from an all-payer claims database and (2) domains of neighborhood risk factors (socioeconomic and food environment) from national and local datasets. We then used logistic regression analysis to identify specific neighborhood risk factors associated with low and high birthweight hotspots. This study examined 2088 census tracts representing 419,025 infants. We found almost no overlap (1.5%) between low and high birthweight hotspots. The majority of low birthweight hotspots (87.2%) overlapped with a socioeconomic risk factor and 95.7% overlapped with a food environment risk factor. Half of high birthweight hotspots (50.0%) overlapped with a socioeconomic risk factor and 48.8% overlapped with a food environment risk factor. Low birthweight hotspots were associated with high prevalence of excessive housing cost, unemployment, and poor food environment. High birthweight hotspots were associated with high prevalence of uninsured persons and convenience stores. Programs and policies that aim to prevent disparities in infant birthweight should examine the broader context by which hotspots of at-risk birthweight overlap with neighborhood risk factors. Multi-level strategies that include the neighborhood context are needed to address prenatal pathways leading to low and high birthweight outcomes.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Health(social science)
- Urban Studies
- Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health