Background Few studies have evaluated whether histopathologic lesions on kidney biopsy provide prognostic information beyond clinical and laboratory data. Methods We enrolled 676 individuals undergoing native kidney biopsy at three tertiary care hospitals into a prospective, observational cohort study. Biopsy specimens were adjudicated for semiquantitative scores in 13 categories of histopathology by two experienced renal pathologists. Proportional hazards models tested the association between histopathologic lesions and risk of kidney disease progression ($40% eGFR decline or RRT). Results Mean baseline eGFR was 57.5636.0 ml/min per 1.73 m 2 . During follow-up (median, 34.3 months), 199 individuals suffered kidney disease progression. After adjustment for demographics, clinicopathologic diagnosis, and laboratory values, the following lesions (hazard ratio; 95% confidence interval) were independently associated with progression: inflammation in nonfibrosed interstitium (0.52; 0.32 to 0.83), moderate and severe versus minimal interstitial fibrosis/tubular atrophy (2.14; 1.24 to 3.69 and 3.42; 1.99 to 5.87, respectively), moderate and severe versus minimal global glomerulosclerosis (2.17; 1.36 to 3.45 and 3.31; 2.04 to 5.38, respectively), moderate and severe versus minimal arterial sclerosis (1.78; 1.15 to 2.74 and 1.64; 1.04 to 2.60, respectively), and moderate and severe versus minimal arteriolar sclerosis (1.63; 1.08 to 2.46 and 2.33; 1.42 to 3.83, respectively). An 11-point chronicity score derived from semiquantitative assessments of chronic lesions independently associated with higher risk of kidney disease progression (hazard ratio per one-point increase, 1.19; 95% confidence interval, 1.12 to 1.27). Conclusions Across a diverse group of kidney diseases, histopathologic lesions on kidney biopsy provide prognostic information, even after adjustment for proteinuria and eGFR.
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