The Projection of Implicit and Explicit Goals

Christie L.K. Kawada, Gabriele Oettingen, Peter M. Gollwitzer, John A. Bargh

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


In 3 studies, the authors analyzed whether projection occurs for both conscious and nonconscious goals. In Experiment 1, participants who were predisposed to hold a learning goal over a performance goal rated others as possessing more of a learning goal. In Experiment 2, participants who were either implicitly primed with or explicitly assigned to have the goal to compete perceived others as striving for competitive goals more than control participants. In Experiment 3, the authors demonstrated that it was the actual goal to compete rather than the trait construct of competitiveness that was projected. The control of automatic goal projection effects is discussed, and interpersonal consequences of goal projection are delineated.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)545-559
Number of pages15
JournalJournal of personality and social psychology
Issue number4
StatePublished - Apr 2004

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Social Psychology
  • Sociology and Political Science


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