T cells act as the puppeteers in the adaptive immune response, and their dysfunction leads to the initiation and progression of pathological conditions. During their lifetime, T cells experience myriad forces that modulate their effector functions. These forces are imposed by interacting cells, surrounding tissues, and shear forces from fluid movement. In this review, a journey with T cells is made, from their development to their unique characteristics, including the early studies that uncovered their mechanosensitivity. Then the studies pertaining to the responses of T cell activation to changes in antigen-presenting cells’ physical properties, to their immediate surrounding extracellular matrix microenvironment, and flow conditions are highlighted. In addition, it is explored how pathological conditions like the tumor microenvironment can hinder T cells and allow cancer cells to escape elimination.
- T cells
- adaptive immunity
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Biomedical Engineering
- Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)